Illegal Graffiti as a Part of Spanish 15-M Protest (2013–2016)


Spanish 15-M was the most important protest in the history of Spain since 1977 when Spain gained democracy. 15-M began in 2011 at the square of Puerta del Sol in Madrid and spread rapidly into all major cities in Spain. Madrid’s public spaces were shaped through squatting, protest-camps, marches, strikes, manifestations and graffiti. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of graffiti in 15-M protest: on what issues graffiti communicates about and how the communication is formed.

Research was based on photographed graffiti in Madrid between 2012 and 2014. Qualitative content analysis and hermeneutical close readings were applied to the research material. The analysis showed that graf